Future of Reading
RIT, June 9-12, 2010

“Frame Jumps and Mixed Modalities”
Johanna Drucker

· “Day” by Kenneth Goldsmith
· NY Times – 1 day put into a book, remediated text”
· Reading online combines print spaces with graphic signage
· Navigable codex –
· Discontinuous reading
· Digital basis of web-based reading:
· “Hooked on gadgets, and paying a mental price”
· Jesse James Garrett “elemets of user experience” 2000
· What is the temporality of a digital environment?

Tablets and the future of media
Chris Anderson, Wired magazine
Conde Mast built an app for the magazine experience (iPad)
They don’t think too much about the interface
They assumed top uses of new ipad/tablets: Web, games, other apps, rich media, video
What is the reading experience on the tablet/ipad? How they swipe, use it, horizontal, etc.? more like a book than a computer
Reset: Consumer behavior, blanace of power between desktop & mobile, economics, media for the phone gen
All things change: spread, adjacency, well, jump page, pull quotes, back cover, frequency (it’s a periodical, web?)
They are going to take it off the web and make it ipad only (hmm?? What about people who don’t have ipads.. maybe other tablets come out.)

Decoding Babel: Emerging Dimensions of Language, Power, and Translationg on Wikipedia
Amit Ray, RIT, English prof
“recursive publics” – the term he prefers.
(interesting ppt – all black background with white words)
www.edge.org -- Psych. Who studies language

Amplification v. Distraction: Penguin’s ventures beyond the book and past the page
Molly Barton, Penguin Group
Don’t believe the hype: about amazon publishging and publishers going out of business AND apps, ipads, etc. taking over everything
I. Publishers: 1. Connectors 2. Bank (loans)
(Penguin has an FYE program, books good for fye)
II. Ebooks, apps, multimedia content
Amplification vs. distraction
Ebooks – Penguin has 10000+ for sale today
Enriched ebooks – i.e. Pride and Prejudice
Especials: a medium-length form
Print misfits
Epub – the new standard for ebooks??
Level 26 – the first “digi-novel” –
The Pillars of the earth by Ken Follett – multimedia

Designing a new reading experience on the iPad
Garret Voorhees
Multiple columns on ipad is really helpful
He chose different types of standard types.
He added chaparral, minion, sabon, scala, syntax, univers, whitney
Nonlinear reading graphic design retrospective
What really works:
Excitement and potential is still high
Tactile interaction/intuitiveness
What doesn’t work:
Use of more than two columns
Unclear interaction
Lack of rich/dynamic typography (or poor type decisions)
Missed opportunities
Screen resolution

A Multimedia Incunabulum
Richard Lanham, professor emeritus, UCLA, English
Video clip for “prose evidence”
Guild language
Classical rhetoric .. The Economics of Attention
Jatta? And the origins .. latin humanisim in Italy

Google Books
Jon Orwant, Google engineering manager
“research corpus”
Nature article: Words on the brink.. the evolution of language
The “great man” theory – words that constitute our collective written culture

Hyper Reading: Pattern v. Meaning
N. Katherine Hayles, Duke University, Literature
studies and the Dumbest Generation show the decline in leisure reading
Neurological Consquences: working memory/long-term memory—iBrain (Small and Vorgan), More links=less retention, less understanding, (erping zhu, 1999, miall and Dobson 2001, Neiderhauser et all, 2000); The Shallows by Carr
Nielson Norman Group – F Pattern, 3 min. per web page
Is close reading our disciplinary identity? “Close reading in 2009”
Hyper reading: Sosnoski, hyper-readers and their reading engines (1999) – filtering by keywords, skimming “pecking” fragmenting
Updating Sosnoski: skim, scan, hyperlink.juxtapose
She wrote article about hyper attention
Shall the twain meet?
But John Guillor “how scholars read”
The Book wheel.. way to read books that were heavy,

Close reading: typically a mono local context
Hyper reading a multi-local context

Hyper reading : computer-assisted human reading
Machine reading : human assisted computer reading

Pattern vs. Meaning

The better way (her argument): Synergistic interactions: close, hyper, and machine reading
Mark Danielewski, Only Revolutions
Infusion/Contamination of narrative by database
“spoiler map” nix list – what do you do for an encore to house of leaves, she thinks it contained a list of specific forbidden words

Disciplinary identity re-thought: literary studies employs a diverse set of reading strategies (incl close, hyper, and machine reading)
And through them explores and articulates the rih conjunctions between textual patterns and meanings.

Reinvigorate synaptic networks related to close reading

Getting to e-Pub
Molly Cort, Managing Editor, RIT Cary Graphics

Pdf to epub.. to iPad
Use GoodReader (app) -- (upload pdf file)

Michael Maxwell, Kirtas Technologies
Easy books… simple paperbooks
Challenging books…columnar
Impossible or too costly… science and math, older languages

e-book quality – will there be two different standards?
--Big publishers… perfection ,just like the printed book
--Self publishers & out of copyright? What is good enough?
--Errors are more critical if it is not your first language?

Will pdf reduce/replace epub needs? ??

The Role of Vision in Reading
Denis Pelli, psych and neural science, NYU
www.typophile.com Jan 29, Oct 26, 2008 quote

Four eye movements per second (Huey, 1908)

What is your visual span?
Xuncrowdedx (Oekku abd Tukab 2008 Natyure neuroscience
-- if you can see “uncrowded” then you probably read faster – reading speed is 4/xec and the visual span u. Speed = u x 4 letter/sec = u x 40 word/min

--Crowding in a word
R - +are (focus on the red – sign)

What is reading for?
Robert Bringhurst, author, poet, linguist, typographer
The elements of typographical (?) style
Reading means paying attention to what’s in front of you and trying to make sense of it.